This page is full of amazing thoughts and information from the leaders of finding “the news before its news” HY-PE. Here are the topics discussed with thought leaders and publid health advocates.

  • Vaccine Rollout out and 3 phase approach.
  • Does blood type matter for COVID severity?
  • How does testing work?
  • Who is most likely to have a severe reaction based on blood type?
  • Why the ex-presidents are coming together to show support?
  • What is less likely than winning the lottery but we are all going to see it live?
  • Do Masks Really Matter
  • Can mosquitoes carry covid?

Introduction to Blood and COVID-19:

  • Many people don’t know their blood type. In fact, only 66% of Americans reported knowing their blood type, according to a 2019 CBS News poll
  • It would be straightforward if we all had the same blood. But we don’t. On the surface of every one of our red blood cells, we have up to 342 antigens—molecules capable of triggering the production of specialized proteins called antibodies. It is the presence or absence of particular antigens that determines someone’s blood type.
  • Only 3 percent of the U.S. population donates blood, yet 1 in 3 will need in their life, and the amount of blood pre-COVID-19 has been issued as an Emergency Crisis. 
  • Every two seconds someone in the U.S. needs blood. It is essential for surgeries, cancer treatment, chronic illnesses, and traumatic injuries.
  • About 45% of people in the U.S. have Group O (positive or negative) blood; the proportion is higher among Hispanics (57%) and African Americans (51%).
  • Type O negative red cells can be given to patients of all blood types. Because only 7% of people in the U.S. are type O negative, it’s always in great demand and often in short supply.

How does COVID-19 Testing Work?

Blood Types most likely to get COVID-19

  • Studies indicate right now that having Type A blood was associated with a 45% increased risk of having severe COVID-19-19-19. 
  • Type O blood was associated with a 35% reduced risk of the disease.
  • Another recent study who compared 2,173 COVID-19-19-19 patients in three hospitals in Wuhan and Shenzhen to more than 27,000 “normal people.” They found that people with Type A blood had a 21% greater risk of the disease than their counterparts with other blood types, and that people with Type O blood had a 33% lower risk.

Most Common Blood Types in the US:

Blood types in the US:

1. O-positive (37.4 percent)

2. A-positive (35.7 percent)

3. B-positive (8.5 percent)

4. O-negative (6.6 percent)

5. A-negative (6.3 percent)

6. AB-positive (3.4 percent)

7. B-negative (1.5 percent)

 8.         AB-negative (0.6 percent)

Blood group O – has no antigens, but both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in the plasma. 

Blood group AB – has both A and B antigens, but no antibodies.

US Ethnicity Differences in Blood Types:

  • African American:
    • 47% O-positive,
    • 24% A-positive,
    • and 18% B-positive.
  • Latin American:
    • 53% O-positive,
    • 29% A-positive,
    • and 9% B-positive.
  • Asian: 39%
    •  O-positive,
    • 27% A-positive, and
    • 25% B-positive.
  • Caucasian:
    • 37% O-positive,
    • 33% A-positive,
    •  and 9% B-positive.

Core Difference in Blood Types:

       Blood group O

o   Antigens on red cell: none

o   Antibodies in plasma: anti-A and anti-B

·         Blood group A

o   Antigens on red cell: A

o   Antibodies in plasma: anti-B

·         Blood group B

o   Antigens on red cell: B

o   Antibodies in plasma: anti-A

·         Blood group AB

o   Antigens on red cell: A and B

o   Antibodies in plasma: none

Blood Type Is Inherited through Parents:

Rh factors are genetically determined. A baby may have the blood type and Rh factor of either parent, or a combination of both parents. Rh factors follow a common pattern of genetic inheritance. The Rh-positive gene is dominant (stronger) and even when paired with an Rh-negative gene, the positive gene takes over.

  • If a person has the genes + +, the Rh factor in the blood will be positive.
  • If a person has the genes + -, the Rh factor will also be positive.
  • If a person has the genes – -, the Rh factor will be negative.

What Blood Type is least likely to get COVID-19

Does Blood Type Impact Severity?

Although longitudinal data will validate these findings, early clinical evidence suggests across a multitude of clinical trials worldwide suggest:

  1. Those with blood type A or AB typically had a longer stay in the intensive care unit, with a median of 13.5 days. Meanwhile, people with blood group O or B, experienced a visit in the ICU with a median of about nine days.
  2. Also, a higher proportion of COVID-19-19-19 patients with blood group A or AB required mechanical ventilation and had a longer ICU stay compared with patients with blood group O or B.
  3. Types A and AB also needed a sort of dialysis that helps the kidneys filter blood without putting too much pressure on the heart more often than their counterparts.
  4. “Blood group O is significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection,” researchers wrote, according to NBC News.
  5. A growing body of evidence suggests those who have blood type O may be less likely to contract COVID-19virus and typically experience less severe symptoms when they do come down with the illness. Research showed those with blood type A or AB typically had a longer stay in the intensive care unit, with a median of 13.5 days. Meanwhile, people with blood group O or B, experienced a visit in the ICU with a median of about nine days.
  6. “A higher proportion of COVID-19-19-19 patients with blood group A or AB required mechanical ventilation and had a longer ICU stay compared with patients with blood group O or B,” the study authors wrote.
  7. Types A and AB also needed a sort of dialysis that helps the kidneys filter blood without putting too much pressure on the heart more often than their counterparts.
  8. “Blood group O is significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection,” researchers wrote, according to NBC News.
  9. A growing body of evidence suggests those who have blood type O may be less likely to contract COVID-19virus and typically experience less severe symptoms when they do come down with the illness.

Key Observational Study Highlights: 

  • Researchers have identified certain things that make some people more vulnerable than others. Men are at greater risk than women.
  • Older people are at greater risk than younger people. 
  • Those with chronic health problems like Type 2 diabetes, obesity and serious heart conditions are faring worse than those without them. 
  • Black and Latino Americans are at greater risk than Asian Americans and whites.

False Positives and False Negatives by Blood Type:   

  • Researchers found that having Type A blood was associated with a 34% greater chance of testing positive  
  • Type O blood was associated with a 20% lower chance of testing positive.

Note one study found Type AB blood were 44% less likely to test positive, although only 21 of the 682 people in this study who tested positive for the COVID-19 virus had AB blood.

Note: About 80% of people secrete the same antigens that are in their blood as in their saliva, according to a study published in the Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research.

Why would blood type have anything to do with COVID-19?

That’s not clear. Perhaps different combinations of A and B antigens change the immune system’s production of infection-fighting antibodies or have some other unknown biologic effect, the authors of the New England Journal of Medicine study wrote.

Another possibility is that the genes associated with blood type also affect the ACE2 receptor on human cells.

Ex-Presidents join together to get vaccine.

COVID-19 Blood Clot Risks and Symptoms?


Blood clots are blood that have converted from a liquid to a solid state. They can beneficial when they formed in response to a injury or cut for example due to a clots ability to essentially plug the injured vessel stopping the bleeding.  However, blood clots do prevent proper blood flow throughout the blood body, particularly oxygen in the red blood cells circulating the body going to and from the brain, as well as prevents the white blood cells from entering areas to fight infections once plugged.   

The process by which a blood clot forms is called coagulation. Coagulation inhibitor proteins help to prevent abnormal coagulation and resolve clots after they are formed.

COVID-19 and Blood Clots:

Researchers recently found that inflammatory proteins produced during infection significantly alter the function of platelets, making them “hyperactive” and more prone to form dangerous and potentially deadly blood clots.

Robert A. Campbell, Ph.D states “We found that inflammation and systemic changes, due to the infection, are influencing how platelets function, leading them to aggregate faster, which could explain why we are seeing increased numbers of blood clots in COVID-19 patients.”Surprisingly, their study didn’t detect evidence of the virus in the vast majority of platelets, suggesting that it could be promoting the genetic changes within these cells indirectly.

“There are genetic processes that we can target that would prevent platelets from being changed,” Campbell says. “If we can figure out how COVID-19 is interacting with megakaryocytes or platelets, then we might be able to block that interaction and reduce someone’s risk of developing a blood clot.”

This study titled, “Platelet Gene Expression and Function in COVID-19 Patients,” was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the University of Utah Health 3i Initiative, and the American Heart Foundation.

The risk of developing blood clots is high with COVID-19 patients after the recovery period, particularly in individuals aged 20-40, due to lack of oxygen. Hereditary traits, blood type, diet, and pre-existing conditions play a crucial role in an individual’s likelihood of developing blood clots. 

Emerging evidence suggests COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of blood clotting, which can lead to cardiovascular problems and organ failure in some patients, particularly among those with underlying medical problems such as diabetes, obesity, or high blood pressure.

It was also noticed early on that individuals with expected blood clots were COVID-19-19 positive, assuming clotting may be an early sign of infection.  Only until recently was there enough evidence to understand the correlation in blood clotting in younger individuals and COVID-19, meaning there may be many in this category who have been mis/undiagnosed and need to address with a healthcare professional before additional potential problems arise. In addition, clotting and swelling are now believed to be an early onset symptom, and regardless of pain level and if experiencing other systems or not, all who believe to be experience blood clots should seek medical treatment.  

Long term effects have still not been defined, however, limbs and lower and upper level extremities such as fingers and toes are also a concern.  It is expected that the number of these receiving rehab will increase in 2021 by 20% directly from COVID-19, which could range from rehabilitation from limb loss to cognitive and physical impairments such as stroke resulting from clots. There is no evidence to support if clotting happens quicker, but there is evidence to prove that those who previously were at low risk may now be considered high risk post infection, regardless of age, sex, or demographic. 

What is Blood Plasma? 

Blood Plasma is simply the liquid portion of blood. You get blood plasma when you separate the red blood cells, white blood cells, and the platelets holding the two together. What’s left after all 3 three are removed is the bloods’ plasma, and it is crucial. 

Plasma serves as a transport medium for delivering nutrients to the cells of the various organs of the body and for transporting waste products derived from cellular metabolism to the kidneys, liver, and lungs for excretion. 

It is also a transport system for blood cells, and it plays a critical role in maintaining normal blood pressure. Plasma helps to distribute heat throughout the body and to maintain homeostasis, or biological stability, including acid-base balance in the blood and body. 

Blood plasma is around 92% water. The other 6-8% consists of proteins and they play a crucial role to one’s health.  For example, they are responsible for mediating immune and inflammatory responses to a variety of infectious agents, including COVID-19. If the plasma clots, the resulting liquid, devoid of cells and fibrinogen, is then called Blood Serum.   

Biochemical testing of plasma and serum is an important part of modern clinical diagnosis and treatment monitoring. For example, high or low concentrations of glucose in the plasma or serum help to confirm serious disorders such as diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. Substances secreted into the plasma by cancers may indicate an occult malignancy; for instance, an increased concentration of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a middle-aged asymptomatic man may indicate undiagnosed prostate cancer. 

The same rules apply for COVID-19, which is why blood-based testing compared to saliva, etc. remains the most accurate form of testing for infections and other complications.  

Convalescent Blood Therapy

Why are Blood Transfusions and Convalescent Therapy Important with COVID-19? 

Why Does Protecting your Blood Matter and the Cost?

  • 1 unit of blood usually costs 200-300 dollars, not including storage/freezing or shipping costs.  
  • 100 units are needed for a typical car accident. 
  • 1 pint of blood can save up to 3 lives, and one pint is the rough equivalent to one unit. 
  • Blood transfusions for example, help children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) in numerous ways. They assist the blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity and reduce the percentage of red blood cells that carry the sickle gene. Transfusions have also been shown to ease the symptoms of SCD children, such as acute chest syndrome (which can resolve dramatically following an exchange transfusion), ankle ulcers or delayed puberty, as well as life-threatening clots. Transfusions can be acute (given briefly prior to surgery), short term (to assist a healthy pregnancy), or long term (to prevent strokes).

How much blood is in my body? 

  • On average, around 7% of the human body weight is blood. The volume of one unit of RBCs contains approximately 200mL red blood cells, 100 mL of an additive solution, and ~30mL plasma, with a hematocrit approximately 55%.
  • There are roughly 8-12 pints of are in the body of an average adult. 08. One unit of blood is ~525 mL, which is roughly the equivalent of one pint.
  • The cellular portion of blood contains red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs) and platelets. The RBCs carry oxygen from the lungs. The WBCs help to fight infection, and platelets are parts of cells that the body uses for clotting. All blood cells are produced in the bone marrow.

Why are blood transfusions important in regards to COVID-19-19? 

  • Nearly 21 million blood products are transfused each year. Platelets, critical for cancer patients, must be transfused within 5 days of donation. Adults have around 10 pints of blood in their bodies. About 1 pint is given during a donation.
  • A massive transfusion is classified as more than 4 units of packed red blood cells in an hour, or more than 10 units of packed red cells in 24 hours. This is enough blood to replace an average-sized person’s entire blood volume.
  • Also known as erythrocytes, RBCs are the most common type of cell found in the blood, with each cubic millimeter of blood containing 4-6 million cells.
  • A massive transfusion is classified as more than 4 units of packed red blood cells in an hour, or more than 10 units of packed red cells in 24 hours. This is enough blood to replace an average-sized person’s entire blood volume.

How many blood transfusions happen a day?

  • 4.5 million Americans would die each year without life saving blood transfusions. Approximately 32,000 pints of blood are used each day in the United States.
  • The average adult has about 4 to 6 liters of blood (9 to 12 US pints) in their body. The average man has more blood than the average woman, and people who weigh more or are taller than others have more blood. This means a person can die from losing 2 1/2 to 4 liters of blood.

How much blood can a person lose before they die?

If you lose more than 40 percent of your blood, you will die. This is about 2,000 mL, or 0.53 gallons of blood in the average adult

Does blood replenish? 

Because they lack a nucleus, RBCs stay viable for only about 120 days and must be replaced at the same rate as they disappear from the blood (= 2.5 million cell/second). Also, mature red blood cells contain no nucleus, therefore they have no DNA. 

What is a Universal Plasma Donor?  

The Universal Plasma Donor is AB Negative:

  • AB Plasma is considered the “Universal Plasma” meaning it can be transfused to all patients regardless of blood type. Can receive AB-, B-, A-, O-. 
  • AB negative donations are extremely versatile, but because it is the rarest blood type finding new donors can be a challenge. Plasma from AB negative donations can help treat patients of all blood types, however fresh frozen plasma is only produced from male donations. This is because female donors (especially those who have been pregnant) can develop antibodies that, while no danger to themselves, can prove life threatening to patients transfused with their plasma.
  • Please note that The Red Cross has begun requesting AB negative blood donors to switch to giving platelets. Each time an AB Negative person donates it could help up to 3 adults or 12 children. 

Protecting certain groups of people from Infection:  

Coincidentally, The Universal Platelet donor is also AB Negative:   

  • Every 15 seconds someone in the U.S. needs a platelet transfusion.
  • Platelets are not as type specific as red blood cells, meaning that most patients can accept platelets from donors with any blood type, regardless of the patient’s blood type. Since platelets only last for FIVE days, they are always needed by patients.
  • Less than 1% of the U.S. population have AB negative blood, making it the least common blood type among Americans. Patients with AB negative blood type can receive red blood cells from all negative blood types.

What is Typically the Healthiest Blood Type?

  • Of the eight main blood types, people with type O have the lowest risk for heart disease. People with types AB and B are at the greatest risk, which could be a result of higher rates of inflammation for these blood types. A heart-healthy lifestyle is particularly important for people with types AB and B blood.

Why are Protecting Platelets Important Regarding COVID-19?

Recent study findings suggest that COVID-19 is associated with the increased production of large immature platelets, as megakaryocytes respond to increased platelet consumption. Interestingly, COVID-19 is associated with increased numbers of immature platelets even at normal platelet counts. For example, if an AB Negative individual contracts COVID-19, they may be ineligible to donate either plasma or platelets. 

The Universal Blood Donor: O-

  • Type O blood is often in short supply in hospitals, due to demand for this universal donor type, according to the Red Cross. In particular, type O-negative blood is in high demand because it’s the one most often used for emergencies, when there may not be time to determine a patient’s blood type
  • Recent studies show that there is a need for blood transfusions every 2 seconds. The average person can only donate 1 pint of whole blood in a single donation and the shelf life is 42 days, which is why the need to keep replenishing the supply to meet demands is great. 38% of the population in the United States are eligible to donate blood, but only 3% of us actually donate.
  • However, Type O positive blood is given to patients more than any other blood type, which is why it’s considered the most needed blood type.

The Universal Receiver of Blood: AB +

People with AB+ blood can receive from any blood type.

Can Mosquitos Carry COVID-19?

Mosquitos are responsible for more human deaths than anything else in human existence.  However, they are unlikely biological candidates to host and spread the virus, but their indirect impact is very important. 

There have been little studies conducted to prove if mosquitos and other insects can transmit the virus.  The World Health Organization has stated although unlikely, it is a possibility.  The virus has mutated multiple times which has allowed it to adapt to new surroundings. 

The real danger with insects is their ability to compromise your healths immunity which could increase your susceptibility of getting infected.  This may be fatal for those with serious health conditions or suffer from conditions such as Sickle Cell Anemia.  

It may also be important to note that mosquitos are most attracted to blood Type O than any other blood type. Fortunately, Type O individuals usually have stronger immune systems.  This may be why most studies show Type O patients having a higher COVID-19 recovery rate, decreased chances of getting infected and testing positive, and less serious complications after infection.  

Outdoor activity has continued to increase over the previous months, which would assume a greater likelihood of coming in contact with a tick for example, which could lead to developing Lyme’s disease.  This could be a fatal combination to the immune system for an individual who is already COVID-19 positive, and if negative may lead to increased susceptibility of infection and worsened outcomes. 

Another example would be hotels or prison systems. Prisons are notoriously known for hosting a large number of inmates with Hepatitis C.  These individuals are at already at greater risk of developing serious health complications if infected with COVID-19-19 due an already compromised immune system.

Mosquitos, gnats, bed bugs, ticks, biting flies, fleas and other insects remain suspect in the fight against COVID-19-19.  For many essential workers, this type of contact may be unavoidable, however understanding the risk and taking proper precautions will be key. 

COVID-19- Vaccine Rollout

What is Cord Blood Banking?

Most medical organizations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), recommend public donation of cord blood whenever possible. Currently, they do not recommend privately banking your newborn’s cord blood unless you have a child or family member with a current or potential need for a stem cell transplant.

What is cord blood banking used for?

The umbilical cord fluid is loaded with stem cells. They can treat cancer, blood diseases like anemia, and some immune system disorders, which disrupt your body’s ability to defend itself. The fluid is easy to collect and has 10 times more stem cells than those collected from bone marrow.

How long is cord blood good for?

How long can cord blood be stored before it expires? Cord blood stem cells are known to have remained viable — and, in fact, in the same condition as the day they were frozen — after more than 20 years of storage.  This is significantly different than the average shelf life of blood. 

What diseases can cord blood cure?

Cord blood contains blood-forming stem cells that can be used in the treatment of patients with blood cancers such as leukemias and lymphomas, as well as certain disorders of the blood and immune systems, such as sickle cell disease and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. In addition, people who might benefit from stem cell therapies include those with spinal cord injuries, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, stroke, burns, cancer and osteoarthritis.

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Blood Types and COVID-19




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